A Selectively Exhaustive Chronology of the Life & Works of
                                      Robert Lax (1915-2000)

Compiled by Paul J. Spaeth
[revised 2/06]


1915    (Nov.30) Lax is born in Olean, New York.

1934    Begins studies at Columbia University in NYC.

1938    Receives bachelor’s degree from Columbia University.
            (Summer) Brings Thomas Merton to stay at a cottage in the hills above Olean.

1939    (Summer) Brings Merton and Ed Rice to stay at the cottage, and introduces 
               Merton to the campus of St. Bonaventure College.

1940    (Summer) Brings Merton, Rice, Ad Reinhardt, Robert Gibney, & other Columbia
               friends to stay at the cottage.
            [Merton teaches English at St. Bonaventure College until Dec. 1941]

1941    Works on editorial staff of The New Yorker and at Friendship House in NYC.
            [Merton enters the Trappist monastery at Gethsemani,KY in Dec.]

1943    Teaches English at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
            (Dec.19) Baptized into the Roman Catholic Church in NYC.

1944    Receives fellowship to study philosophy at UNC at Chapel Hill; begins a 
               dissertation on Thomas Aquinas.

1945    Works at Time, and later Parade in NYC.

1946    Works as a writer at Goldwyn Studios in Hollywood, CA until 1948.

1948    (Oct.-June 1949) Teaches English at Connecticut College for Women.

1949    Travels through Western Canada with the Cristiani Family Circus.
            Visits Robert Gibney & Nancy Flagg in the Virgin Islands, along with Ad

1950    (Spring) Staying in Olean, writes finalized version of Circus of the Sun in the
               Library of St. Bonaventure College.
            (Sept.) Begins living in France, at Eau Vive, a Dominican House, in Paris while
               working for New Story, a short-lived literary magazine, and at Marseilles.  
            (Dec.) Back in NYC for a short visit.

1951    (Jan.) Back in France, mainly in Marseilles.
            (Summer) Spends a month in Rome, and a month with the Alfred Court Zoo   
               Circus traveling across the Italian peninsula to Pescara.

            “Circus of the Sun. Excerpt from a Novel in Progress”
in New Story 4 (June  
             1951) 34-36. [First published appearance of material that would become Circus
             of the Sun] 

1953    Helps to found Jubilee: A Magazine of the Church & Her People in NYC, for
               which he acts as "roving editor" until 1967.   

1955    Meets graphic artist Emil Antonucci in NYC, who begins producing small press 
               editions & films based on Lax’s work.
            Tree. New York: The Hand Press.

1956    The Juggler. New York: The Hand Press.
               [PAX. New York, 1956-1985 A poetry broadside founded & edited by Lax]
               PAX 1: [Three Poems] / Mark van Doren, Thomas Merton, Lax.
               PAX 2: [Three Poems]/ E.E. Cummings, Claire McAllister, Richard Gilman.

1957    PAX 3: [Two Poems] / Mark van Doren, Lax.
            PAX 4: Five Poems / Thomas Merton.
            PAX 5: The Anxious Man / William Maxwell.

1958   “The Circus” in New World Writing 13 (1958) 92-100.
               [2nd published appearance of material that would become Circus of the Sun]
            Oedipus. New York: The Hand Press.
            PAX 6: Four Poems / Soichi Furuta.
            PAX 7: Two Poems and a Translation / Thomas Merton.
            PAX 8: 27th & 4th / Robert Lax.

1959    The Circus of the Sun. New York: Journeyman Press.
            PAX 9: Mystery / Claire McAllister.
            PAX 10: Hymn / Jack Kerouac.

1960    PAX 11: Four Poems / Cesar Vallejo.
            PAX 12: [Four Poems] / Ned O’Gorman.
            PAX 13: Documents of Modern Art / Ad Reinhardt & others.
            Antonucci film: 27th & 4th (22 min.)

1961    PAX 14: Two Fables / Robert Lax.
            PAX 15: The Sea, East Hampton/ Ned O'Gorman.
            PAX 16: Original Child Bomb/ Thomas Merton.           
            A Problem in Design, A Fable for the New Year. New York: The Hand Press.

1962    As part of a vacation returns to France, and visits Greece for the first time.
            (May27) Television broadcast reading on “Directions ’62: A Catholic
               Perspective” (ABC) sponsored by the National Council of Catholic Men.
               Program includes Lax and Kathleen Raine, John Fandel, Leonie Adams & Ned

            New Poems. New York: Journeyman Press.
            PAX 17: Autobiography / Robert Kaye.
            PAX 18: "A square canvas..." / Ad Reinhardt. Photo by Lax.

            Antonucci films: Oedipus (3 min.), Some Fables (9 min.)

1964    (Spring) Begins living on Greek Island of Kalymnos.
             “The Port Was Longing”
in Poor Old Tired Horse 10.

1965    (Nov.18) Records poetry for Library of Congress in Athens, Greece.
            Poetry reading entitled "One Stone" produced for Radio Brussels by Walter Van
               Dyke & D. R. Hazelton.
            “Sea & Sky” in The Lugano Review 1:3-4.
            “The stone, the sea …” in Poor Old Tired Horse 17.

1966    “Black & White” in The Lugano Review 1:5-6.
            How Does the Sun’s Ray Seek the Flower? New York: Journeyman Press.
            Sea Poem. Dunsyre, Scotland: Wild Hawthorn Press.
            Thought. New York: Journeyman Press.
            3 or 4 Poems About the Sea. New York: Journeyman Press.

1967    (Jan.) Abstract verse play entitled “Drama” produced for B.B.C. (Poetry Now) by
               George MacBeth.
            (April-May) Poet-in-Residence at General Beadle State College (South Dakota,
               now Dakota State University).
            Records poetry for the Lamont Poetry Room at Harvard University.

            Antonucci film: Thought (3 min.)

1968    (Oct.) David Kilburn & Julian Mitchell present a reading of Lax poems produced  
               for B.B.C. by George MacBeth.
            “Abstract Poem” in Green Island (1968)

            Robert Lax Special Issue of Voyages 2:1-2 (Winter/Spring 1968)

1969    The Angel and the Old Lady. New York: Journeyman Press.
            “Shower Girl Song” in Green Island (1969).
            Three Poems.
New York: Journeyman Press. 
 Antonucci films: New Film (20 min.), Short Films (20 min.)

1970    Fables.
New York: Journeyman Press.         
            Homage to Wittgenstein
. Kalymnos.
            Tree [ 2nd edition]. New York: Journeyman Press.
            “You will dissolve …” in Green Island (1970).

1971    Able Charlie Baker Dance.
East Markham: Tarasque Press. 
            Another Red Red Blue Poem. New York: Journeyman Press. [Broadside]
            Black & White. New York: Journeyman Press.
            An Evening at Webster Hall. New York: Journeyman Press.
            4 Boats, 3 People. East Markham: Tarasque Press [Postcard]
            A Guide for the Perplexed. New York: Journeyman Press.
            A Moment. New York: Journeyman Press.
            Mostly Blue. New York: Journeyman Press.
            Red Circle – Blue Square. New York: Journeyman Press.

Article on Lax by R. C. Kenedy in Art International 15:1 (1971)
 Antonucci films: Red & Blue (25 min.), Shorts (18 min.)

1973    Wasser / Water / L'Eau. Zurich: Pendo Verlag.

1974    (Feb.-April) Exhibition of Wild Hawthorn & Journeyman presses at The Victoria
               & Albert Museum (London).
            (Summer) Artist-in-Residence, with Antonucci, at Artpark (Lewiston, NY).
            Circus Black – Circus White
. New York: Journeyman Press.
            “Does the grass fear the dark …” New York: Journeyman Press.
            More Blacks & Whites. New York: Journeyman Press.
            Pictures of Reality. New York: Journeyman Press.
            Spring Song. Exeter, Devon, Eng.: Kontexts Publications.
            Star Dialogue. New York: Journeyman Press.
            13 Poems. New York: Journeyman Press.
            “Try to see the air …” New York: Journeyman Press.

1975    (Summer) Artist-in-Residence, with Antonucci, at Artpark (Lewiston, NY).
            “Bird against the cloud …”
in Journeyman 1 (1975)
            Black Earth – Blue Sky. New York:  Journeyman Press.
            “Dr. Shakesprop” in Journeyman 5 (1975)
            “Game on the beach …” in Journeyman 9 (1975)
            “G’bye Flo, I tell her …” New York: Journeyman Press. [Broadside]
“I like get f’d …” New York: Journeyman Press. [Broadside]
“Light dark, light dark …” New York: Journeyman Press. [Broadside]
            “My dog has fleas …”
New York: Journeyman Press. [Broadside]
            “Oedipus” in Journeyman 3 (1975) [First published in 1958]
            Poémes de Collines / tr. Catherine Mauger. Journeyman Press.
            “Red Blue” in Journeyman 12 (1975)
            “Rosebud Is” in Green Island (1975).

            Article on Lax by David Miller in Lugano Review 2 (1975)

1976    (Summer) Artist-in-Residence, with Antonucci, at Artpark (Lewiston, NY).
            (Aug.19) Poetry reading for WBAI radio, NYC.          

            Color Poems. New York: Journeyman Press.
            Color Poems. Scotland: Wild Hawthorn Press.
            Red Blue. New York: Journeyman Press.

1978    (May26) Poetry reading for WBAI radio, NYC.

            A Catch of Anti-Letters / Lax & Thomas Merton. Kansas City: Sheed Andrews &  
               McNeel. [Reprinted 1994]
            Selections. Hove: X-Press & Joe DiMaggio Press.
            A Suite for Jiri Valoch. Davie, Florida: Falkynor Books.

1979    (May14-18) Exhibition of Journeyman publications and Antonucci films at Zona 
               Gallery (Florence, Italy) organized by Maurizio Nannucci.

            Color. Florence, Italy: Exempla.

1980    (Sept.25-26) Takes part in “A Maritain-Merton Symposium” (Louisville, KY)
            [Mythoi] / translation of Fables by Moschos Lagouvardos. Thessalonica.

1981    Circus/Zirkus/Cirque/Circo. Zurich: Pendo Verlag.
            10 Poems / edited by John Landry. Fall River, Massachusetts: Patmos Publication.

1982    (May14) Takes part in the 5th Bielefelder Colloquium Neue Poesie [in Athens]
            (Oct.23) Takes part in a festival entitled “fone, la voce e la traccia” (Florence) 
               along with Brion Gysin, Bernard Heidsieck, Maurizio Nannucci, Emmet 

1983    At the Top of the Night. Furthermore Press.
            Clouds. Furthermore Press.
            [Ennea Poimata] / translation of Nine Poems by Moschos Lagouvardos.
            Episodes = Episoden / edited by Robert Butman. Zurich: Pendo Verlag.
            Fables = Fabeln. Zurich: Pendo Verlag.
            In & Out of Ourdah. Furthermore Press.
            “Nine Poems” in The Blue Boat 1.
            Said’s. Furthermore Press.
            Shepherd’s Calendar. Furthermore Press.
            Tiger. Furthermore Press.
            The Way. Furthermore Press.
            Whole. Furthermore Press.

1984    (May4) Takes part in the 7th Bielefelder Colloquium Neue Poesie.

            Act in This Moment. Furthermore Press.
            Arc. Furthermore Press.
            As Long As. Furthermore Press.
            Astrophysical Masterpieces. Furthermore Press.
            Cloning for Yellow
. Zurich: Seedorn Verlag.
            Cloud Over the Hill. Furthermore Press.
            Fat Ladies. Furthermore Press. [Drawings]
            From the Top of the Ferris Wheel. Furthermore Press.
            In His Dreams. Furthermore Press.

            Just Midnight. Furthermore Press.
            “Light” in Aggie Weston’s 21 (1984)
            The Love That Comes. Furthermore Press.
            "The port was longing …” in Green Island (1984).
            Spider. Furthermore Press.
            21 Pages = 21 Seiten. Zurich: Pendo Verlag.
            Water Sunlight Writes. Furthermore Press.

1985    (April20-May26) Lax retrospective exhibition at Archiv Sohm, Neue
               Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, curated by Thomas Kellein.
            (April21) Reading Neue Staatsgalerie Stuttgart.
            (June21) Radio broadcast “Robert Lax: Ein Eremit in Greichenland” by Sigrid
               Hauf for Westdeutscher Rundfunk.
            (Oct.8-Nov.3) Lax material included in exhibition entitled “Bild/Sprache” at
               Galerie im Taxispalais (Innsbruck, Austria).
             Above the Rock
. Furthermore Press.
             Dark Earth, Bright Sky. Furthermore Press.
             Ghost. Furthermore Press.
             I Can’t See You. Furthermore Press.
            The Nights, the Days. Furthermore Press.
            Other Notes. Furthermore Press.
            Some Short Notes of Robert Lax. Furthermore Press.

            “Craft Interview with Robert Lax” by William Packard in New York Quarterly

1986    (May2) Takes part in the 9th Bielefelder Colloquium Neue Poesie.
            Journal A = Tagebuch A. Zurich: Pendo Verlag.
            New Poems 1962-1985 / edited by Heinz Gappmayr. London: Coracle Press &  
               Aachen: Ottenhausen Verlag.

1987    Start of Lax Archive at St. Bonaventure University (St. Bonaventure, NY).
               (Oct.1-31) Lax material included in exhibition entitled “Abstract Poetry” at Nigel
            Greenwood Books (London).
            (Nov.10) Reading at Theater an der Winkewiese (Zurich) with jazz piano by
               Tessa Weigner.

            Spark & Flame. Frankfurt: Kunstverein.
            33 Poems / edited by Thomas Kellein. Stuttgart & London: Hansjorg Mayer.

1988    Lax material included in exhibition entitled “Visual Poetics” at The Museum of
               Contemporary Art (Brisbane, Australia) curated by Nicholas Zurbrugg.
            Journal B = Tagebuch B. Zurich: Pendo Verlag.
            33 Poems / edited by Thomas Kellein. New York: New Directions.

1989    (March26) Reading at Kunsthalle Basel.

            The Light / The Shade / illustrated by Lax. Zurich: Pendo Verlag.

1990    (Sept.24-Oct.12) Visiting Professor at St. Bonaventure University; awarded 
               honorary doctor of letters degree.
            (Dec.1-Jan.27) “Robert Lax and Concrete Poetry” exhibition at the Burchfield Art
               Center (Buffalo, NY) & at the Poetry/Rare Book Room at SUNY at Buffalo.
               Lindenmeyer for Bayerischer Rundfunk.
            (Nov.30) Radio play “erwartet bobo sambo ein gerauch? Erwartet er eine
               stimme?” for and with Lax by Hatmut Geerken for Bayerischer Rundfunk.
            (Nov.30) Radio broadcast “Is Was – Was Is” by Sigrid Hauff for Bayerischer  

            Journal C = Tagebuch C / edited by David Miller. Zurich: Pendo Verlag.
            Red, Blue, Yellow. Piesport: Edition Hot.
            To the Sea =  á l’amère: poème et variation / Lax & Frédérick Leboyer. France: 
               Livre á Livre.

1991    Prepares five poem prints on fabric with Francesco Conz (Verona).
            (Sept.) Reading at the Sound Poetry Section of the Festival de la Batie (Geneva).
            (Sept.27) Reading of Circus of the Sun at the Kantonsschule Kuesnacht (SZ).
            Psalm / illustrated by Andrew Bick. Exeter, England: Stride Publications.
            Psalm & Homage to Wittgenstein. Zurich: Pendo Verlag.
            The Rooster Poems / edited by Judith Emery, illustrated by Lax. Exeter, England:  
               Stride Publications.
            “white dark, black dark …”  / illustrated by Andrew Blick, essay by David 
            Miller. Edinburgh: Morning Star Publications. [Morning Star Folio 2/3]

1992    (Oct.13) Reading at Kunstmuseum Wintethur.

            Mogador’s Book = fur Mogador / edited by Paul J. Spaeth. Zurich: Pendo Verlag.

1993    (June29-Aug.15) Exhibition entitled “Robert Lax: Vizualni Texty” curated by Jiri
              Valoch in Brno, Czech Republic.
            Journal D = Tagebuch D
. Zurich: Pendo Verlag.

1994    (Nov.2) Reading at the Stadtbucherei Stuttgart.

            27th & 4th / illustrated by Steve Farnie, afterword by Paul J. Spaeth. Devon,
               England: Stride Publications.  
            Dialogues = Dialoge / illustrated by Lax. Zurich: Pendo Verlag.

1995    (June17) “Robert Lax: A Roundtable Discussion” held at the 4th General Meeting
               of the International Thomas Merton Society being held at St. Bonaventure University.
            (Oct.25) Reading at Kunsthalle Basel.
            (Oct.30) Reading at Zurcher Puppen Theater (Zurich).
               music by John Gilmore for Bayersicher Rundfunk.
            (Nov.24, Dec.1, Dec.8) Radio broadcast “Die innere Biografie des Robert Lax”
               pts.1-3 by Sigrid Hauff for Bayerischer Rundfunk.
            (Dec.8) Radio play “bob’s bomb” by Hartmut Geerken & Herbert Kapfer for   
               Bayerischer Rundfunk.

            Notes = Notizen. Zurich: Pendo Verlag.
            Xiliamondi. Exeter: Trombone Press.

            Middle of the Moment (motion picture) / Nicholas Humbert & Werner Penzel of  
            Journal E = Tagebuch E
. Hollywood Journal / edited by Paul J. Spaeth. Zurich:
               Pendo Verlag. 
            Love Had a Compass / edited by James Uebbing. New York: Grove Press.

            Hermits / Peter France. New York: St. Martin’s Press. [chapter on Lax]

1997    (May7-16) Exhibition of Lax/Conz fabric poem prints at Sommerville College Art
               Society (Oxford, Eng.).
            (Sept.4-Oct. 12) Exhibition of Lax/Conz fabric peom prints at Kunstverein  
               Rosenheim (Germany) as part of exhibition entitled “Konkrete Poesie Konzept
            (Sept. 8-9) Performance of Black/White Oratorio with John Beer and Vincent   
               Barras at the Festival de la Batie (Geneva, SZ).
            Journal F = Tagebuch F. Kalymnos Journal
/ edited by John Beer. Zurich: Pendo
            More Scales. Eschenau: Summer Press.
            Sleeping Waking /
edited by John Beer. Charleston, Illinois: Tel-Let. 
            A Thing That Is
/ edited by Paul J. Spaeth. Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press.
               [Poems written in Greece during the 1970’s]
            36 Poems
/ edited by John Beer. Westerly, Rhode Island: Ring Tarigh.

1998    Dr. Glockenspiel’s Invention / illustrated Ray Malone. Exeter: Apparitions Press.

1999    (Aug.6-Sept.24) First showing of Three Windows: homage a robert lax at Haus
               der Kunst, Munich. A video installation produced 1993-1999 by Nicholas  
               Humbert & Werner Penzel of CineNomad.
               [3 synchronized, looped films on a 45 min. cycle]

            Aug 30 / 98 + Sept 29 / 98. Eschenau: Summer Press.
            The Hill = Der Berg / edited by Paula Diaz. Zurich: Pendo Verlag.
            Red Blue. Eschenau: Summer Press.
            Sea & Sky / illustrated by Elisabeth Mase. Basel: HMB Siebdruck.

            The ABCs of Robert Lax / edited by David Miller & Nicholas Zurbrugg. Devon, 
               England: Stride Publications, 1999. [An anthology of critical writings on the  
               work of Robert Lax reprinting important earlier pieces along with new  
               materials, with some items by Lax]
            Robert Lax Multimedia Box / edited by Harmut Geerken & Sigrid Hauff. Verlag
            Michael Farin, 1999. [Contains biography & bibliography of Lax's works, a catalog
            of an installation & video of a film by Nicholas Humbert & Werner Penzel on Lax,
            two cds of Lax reading from his own works and another of a  
            radio play based on Lax’s writings]

2000    (Sept.26) Lax dies in family home in Olean, NY and is buried in the cemetery of   
               St. Bonaventure University.

            Circus Days & Nights / edited by Paul J. Spaeth. Woodstock, NY: Overlook
               Press. [Contains Circus of the Sun, Mogador's Book & Voyage to Pescara]  
            Earth & Sky / edited by William Cirocco. San Francisco: Hawkhaven Press.
            Moments = Hohe Punkte / edited by John Beer. Zurich: Pendo Verlag.
            One Island / illustrated by James Brown. Oaxaca, Mexico: Carpe Diem Press.

2001    (May5) Posthumous Arts Award from St. Bonaventure University.

            Peacemaker’s Handbook = Handbuch für Friedens Stifter / edited Judith Emery    
               & Michael Daugherty. Zurich: Pendo Verlag.
            When Prophecy Still Had a Voice: The Letters of Thomas Merton and Robert 
edited Arthur W. Biddle. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.

            A Religious Poetics in Contemporary American Poetry: Resituating Notions of
               God, the Other, the World and the Self in the Christian Faith /
Jeannine Nicole
               [Thyreen] Mizingou. Thesis (Ph.D.).-Duquesne University.
               [large section on Lax]
            Speaking into Silence / Robert Garlitz, Nicholas Zurbrugg, Robert Lax, Rupert
               Loydell. Exeter: Stride Publications.

2002    Room Full of Voices / edited by John Beer. San Francisco: Hawkhaven Press.

            The Way of the Dreamcatcher /
interviews with Lax by Steve Georgiou. Ottawa:

2003    (Dec.9) “A Celebration of Robert Lax: Peacemaker” (City Lights Books, San
               Francisco) with John Beer, William Cirocco, Steve Georgiou. Readings & reminiscences,
               including a performance of Room Full of Voices.

2004    (Sept.19-Jan.16) Exhibition entitled “Three Islands: Richard Stankiewicz, June 
               Leaf, Robert Lax” at Museum Tinguely, Basel, SZ.
               [large exhibition book issued for each artist]

            The Green Minnow /
illustrated by Louise Victor. San Francisco: Kater Murr’s

            Sea and Sky: Robert Lax and the Spiritual Dimensions of Minimalism /
               Theodore Georgiou. Thesis (Ph.D.).—Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley,

2005    Tertium Quid / edited by Sarah Katherine McCann. Exeter, Devon, Eng.: Stride

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